谈谈神话！油画媒体肯定是神秘的。和令人困惑。和有毒。或不。如果我是你，我会留下来。这就是我第一次开始使用油漆时所做的。我试图保持简单的东西，只是画画和画笔。我了解到，大多数时候，我不需要媒介。这让我释放了我慢慢地和在我自己的时间里学习中学。 Because I was curious. My favourite art supplies store has more than 10 pages of mediums in their oil painting catalogue alone! Jeez, what is all the fuss about?
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What is a medium?
油画介质旨在改变涂料自然行为的方式。因此，如果您希望涂料（直线管）更流体，或更坚硬，更加光泽或更快地干燥，您可以添加介质到您的涂料。您还可以尝试不同的油漆品牌或不同的颜料（参见my blog post about brandsfor example) but generally artists use a medium to change paint characteristics.
What I use
And so in my early painting days (I sound really old now) I tried to add the odd drop of refined linseed oil to my paint and learned it made the paint more fluid and for some colours it slowed down the drying time. I quite liked that as I like to paint thinly and so more fluid paint allowed me to apply the paint thinly and sometimes more transparently. For many years that is the only medium (if any at all) that I used.
But going by the 10+ pages in the art materials catalogue there is so much more. So a few years ago I decided to learn about mediums and try out a few. I asked my fellow artists on Facebook what they used, what recipes they had, and I tried some out myself. For my lace painting I could do with a medium that made my paint very fluid, yet not transparent. After some discussion and recommendations I came up with a mix of refined linseed oil, solvent (I had low-odour solvent Sansodor in the studio so used that) and a little bit of stand oil. The mix was lovely for fine painting work and I used it a lot. I must admit, however, that I can’t be bothered to mix it anymore, and have gone back to good old linseed oil or simply nothing at all.
I did, however, buy and try various other mediums, such asRoberson’s Glazing Medium那Graham’s Walnut Alkyd Medium那and Winsor & Newton’sOleopasto。The glazing medium and the Oleopasto gave me a very strong physical reaction. Within minutes of adding it to the paint, I had to throw away the paints and my (disposable) palette to get rid of the fumes in my studio, fumes that made me feel very ill indeed. I still don’t know which ingredient exactly made me feel so bad and so now tend to stay away from toxic mediums and solvents in general. I am not a fan of turpentine either, as it makes my eyes water and my throat sting. Unfortunately, it is an ingredient in most mediums.
但我知道许多由他们的媒介发誓的艺术家。他们中的许多人发现他们喜欢并坚持它多年。看一下Jackson’s recent blog post about mediums, and see what a variety of artists answered to the question which medium they liked the best. Jackson’s also asked me to contribute to that blogpost (thank you, Jackson’s!) which then became the inspiration for the post you are reading now.Well-known city painter Peter Brown, for example, swears by the aforementioned Roberson’s Glaze Medium! Haidee-Jo Summers prefers to only bring a low-odour solvent when painting out and about, although she does use and make a medium when working in the studio.
溶剂are not only used for cleaning brushes, but also used in mediums. It makes paint dry quicker and thins it. Use it too much and the oil in the paint will break down, leaving you to paint with just pigment which will not adhere to your canvas.
Just a Drop
重要的是只使用小数量的读出um or solvent in your paint. I read somewhere you should never add more than around 20% of medium to your paint and that sounds about right to me. You must make sure you are painting with paint, not with medium. The medium is only added to change the texture and behaviour of the paint somewhat so tiny drops is really all you need.
Fat over Lean
The other important thing to remember is to paint ‘fat over lean’. This oil painting rule has caused a lot of confusion and fear amongst artists and I get emails asking me how painters should plan out their layers in order to stick to the fat-over-lean rule. I believe this rule has been allowed to dominate too much in painting practices and should be taken as a rule of using common sense.我写了一个关于它的博文那encouraging people to not worry too much as long as you use common sense.
A Lof of Choice
许多艺术家,苏ggested before, prefer to make their own mediums with their own personal combination of solvent and oil. Linseed oil, solvent and stand oil are popular combinations.
市场上有许多不同类型的干燥油。它们都增加了干燥时间和流动性。不仅有linseed oil(most popular and used in most oil paints), but alsopoppy oil那safflowerandwalnutoil (does not yellow as quickly, and is paler initially so good for light colours).Stand oil是一个更厚的（亚麻籽）油，越过刷子标记并增加光泽。
Traditionally松节油用于稀释油漆和清洁刷。它通常混合到含有（支架）油的培养基中。除了松节油，您还可以使用低气味替代品，如Windor＆Newton'sSansodor(a mineral or white spirit) which is less toxic than turpentine. Other alternatives areGamsol那Roberson’s Studio Safe Solvent (It smells of oranges but must not forget it is still toxic),Zest it(nearly not-toxic but still a bit) and various other brands of low-odour solvents.
With a drying oil and a solvent you can make your own medium very well. But many manufacturers want to save us the hassle and have come up with the most weird and wonderful mediums one can imagine. Some are so successful that many, many artists use it in all their work and have done so for years. To name a few popular ones:Winsor＆Newton Liquin（速度干燥，有很多品种，如Impasto的媒介;Oleopasto那Liquin Fine DetailorLiquin Light Gel.),迈克尔哈丁油画媒介(increases gloss and transparency ),Roberson’s Glaze Medium(for glazing transparent layers),Gamblin Galkyd Gel Medium(for thick brush marks),Maroger Medium（非常适合潮湿的画画），很多，还有更多。
大多数涂料品牌将有自己的媒介。的course there is no need to match brands and you can safely use any oil painting medium with any brand oil paint. Varnish is generally not considered a good option for use as a medium. Damar also has mixed opinions about its usefulness.
Trial & Error
As with everything it is a matter of trial and error and finding what works for you. For beginning artists I would strongly recommend to stay away from mediums until a much later stage. There is a real risk of using too much medium and producing unstable paintings if you are not careful. It also pays off to learn how paint behaves on its own before diving into making adjustments.
After my little exploration of mediums I am back to simplicity. I have some refined linseed oil nearby but only use it if I need some extra fluidity. I have some solvent (low odour miniral spirit) nearby in case I need to thin the paint or clean out a brush. Both are generally kept in the cupboard and rarely come out.
- Jackson’s blog post about how various artists use mediums